A brief note on the physical features of Sikkim

Sikkim is a small hilly State in the Eastern Himalayas with formidable physical features. It is bounded by vast stretches of the Tibetan Plateau in the North, the Chumbi Valley of Tibet and the kingdom of Bhutan in the East, the Federal Democrate Republic of Nepal in the West and Darjeeling District of West Bengal in the south.

The state of Sikkim has a total area of 7096 sq.kms and is stretched over 112 kms from North to South and 64 kms from East to West. It lies in the North Eastern Himalayas between 27o00'46" to 28o07'48" North Latitude and 88o00'58" to 88o55'25" East Longitude.

The State receives an Annual Rainfall of 2000 mm to 4000 mm. Tista & Rangit, which originates, from Cholamu Lake and Rathong Glacier, respectively are the two major rivers of the State.

Sikkim: Profile of Land Elevation

A brief note on the physical features of Sikkim

Sikkim is a small hilly State in the Eastern Himalayas with formidable physical features. It is bounded by vast stretches of the Tibetan Plateau in the North, the Chumbi Valley of Tibet and the kingdom of Bhutan in the East, the Federal Democrate Republic of Nepal in the West and Darjeeling District of West Bengal in the south.

The state of Sikkim has a total area of 7096 sq.kms and is stretched over 112 kms from North to South and 64 kms from East to West. It lies in the North Eastern Himalayas between 27o00'46" to 28o07'48" North Latitude and 88o00'58" to 88o55'25" East Longitude.

The State receives an Annual Rainfall of 2000 mm to 4000 mm. Tista & Rangit, which originates, from Cholamu Lake and Rathong Glacier, respectively are the two major rivers of the State.

Sikkim: Profile of Land Elevation

Type of Land : Level of Elevation
Lower Hills : Altitude ranging from 270 to 1500 mtrs.
Mid Hills : Altitude ranging from 1500 mtrs. to 2000 mtrs
Higher Hills : Altitude ranging from 2000 mtrs. to 3000 mtrs.
Alpine Zone : Altitude above 3900 mtrs. with vegetation.
Snow Bound Land : Very High Mountains without vegetation and with perpetual Snow cover upto 8580 mtrs.


Sikkim: Brief characteristics of Soil

Texture : Loamy sand to silty clay loam.
Depth : From few inches and in some places practically nil several feet deep depending upon the weathering processes it underwent.
Soil Reaction : All acidic, having PH ranging from 4.3 to 6.4 with mean value 5.37
Organic Matter Content : High, between 0.36% to 5.61% with mean value 2.74%.
Available Nitrogen : 10-280 p.p.m. with mean value 99.21 p.p.m
Available phosphorous : 4.0-175 p.p.m. with mean value 46.87 p.p.m.
Available Potash : 45 to 490 p.p.m. with mean value 184.71 p.p.m.
Lime Requirement : Most between 2.0 tonnes per acre but varies from 0 to 16 tonnes per acre.

 

Sikkim can be basically divided into five range climatically
Sl. No. Range Altitude
1 TROPICAL Below 610 mtrs.
2 SUB TROPICAL 610 to 1524 mtrs.
3 TEMPERATE 1524 to 2743 mtrs.
4 SUB - ALPINE 2743 to 3962 mtrs.
5 ALPINE 3962 to 5182 mtrs.

 

Important Ranges
Sl. No. Range Location
1 Singalila Range Separates Sikkim from Nepal in the West
2 Chola Range Separates Sikkim from Tibet and Bhutan in the East
3 Pangolia Range Separates Sikkim from Bhutan

 

Important Mountains
Sl. No. Name of Mountain Location Height
1 Mt. Khangchendzonga West 28156 Ft.
2 Mt. Kabru West 24215 Ft.
3 Mt. Talung North 24200 Ft.
4 Mt. Siniolchu West 22600 Ft.
5 Mt. Simvo West 22476 Ft.
6 Mt. Pandim West 22100 Ft.
7 Mt. Rathong West 22100 Ft.
8 Mt. Paunhri East 22000 Ft.
9 Mt. Kokthang West 20162 Ft.
10 Mt. Lamaongden East 19366 Ft.
11 Mt. Masunyange East 19300 Ft.

 

Important Hot Springs
Sl. No. Name of Hot Spring Location
1 Phurchachu (Reshi) West District
2 Yumthang North District
3 Borong South District
4 Ralong South District
5 Yumey Samdong North District

 

Important rivers of Sikkim and their tributaries
Sl. No. Rivers Tributary
1 RANGIT Rangbhang, Relli, Rathong & Kalej
2 TISTA Dikchu, Rangyong, Bakchachu, Rongpochu, Zemu Chu, Lachung Chu

 

Important Passes
Sl. No. Name of the Pass Altitude (ft)
1 Nathu-La 14,400
2 Jelep-La 14,500
3 Batang-La 13,000
4 Cho-La -
5 Chiwabhanjang 10,300
6 Chorten Nyima-La 19,000
7 Kongra-La -
8 Lungma-La -
9 Donkia-La 18400

 

Important Glaciers
Sl. No. Name of Glaciers Location
1 Zemu Glacier North District
2 Rathong Glacier West District
3 Lonak Glacier North District
4 Hidden Glacier North District
5 Talung Glacier North District
6 North Lonak Glacier North District
7 South Lonak Glacier North District
8 Tista Khangse Glacier North District

 

Important Lakes of Sikkim
Sl. No. Name of Lakes Location
1 Khe-cheod-Palri (Khecheoperi) West District
2 Gurudungmar North District
3 Lam Pokhari West District
4 Changu (Tsomgo ) East District
5 Laxmi Pokhari West District
6 Cholamu North District
7 Bidang Cho East District
8 Menmecho East District
9 Majur Pokhari West District
10 Sima Choka North District
11 Dud Pokhari West District
12 Samiti Lake West District
13 Ram- Laxman (Twin Lake) West District

 

List of Chogyals (Kings) of Sikkim
Sl. No. Name Period of Reign
1 Phuntsog Namgyal 1642-1670
2 Tensung Namgyal 1670-1700
3 Chagdor Namgyal 1700-1717
4 Gyurmed Namgyal 1717-1733
5 Phuntsog Namgyal II 1733-1780
6 Tenzing Namgyal 1780-1793
7 Tshudpud Namgyal 1793-1863
8 Sidkeong Namgyal 1863-1874
9 Thutob Namgyal 1874-1914
10 Sidkeong Tulku Namgyal 1914
11 Tashi Namgyal 1914-1963
12 Palden Thondup Namgyal 1963-1975

 

List of Governors of Sikkim
Sl. No. Name Took Office Left Office
1 B. B. lall 16 May 1975 9 January 1981
2 Homi J.H. Taleyarkhan 10 January 1981 17 June 1984
3 Kona Prabhakar Rao 18 June 1984 30 May 1985
4 Bhisma Narain Singh (additional charge) 31 May 1985 20 November 1985
5 T.V. Rajeswar 21 January 1985 7 February 1990
6 S.K. Bhatnagar 2 March 1989 7 February 1990
7 Radhakrishna Hariram Tahiliani 8 February 1990 20 September 1994
8 P. Shiv Shankar 21 September 1994 11 November 1995
9 K.V. Raghunatha Reddy (additional charge) 12 November 1995 9 February 1996
10 Chaudhary Randhir Singh 10 February 1996 17 May 2001
11 Kidar Nath Sahani 18 May 2001 25 October 2002
12 V. Rama Rao 26 October 2002 12 July 2006
13 R.S. Gavai (acting) 13 July 2006 12 August 2006
14 V. Rama Rao 13 August 2006 25 October 2007
15 Sudarshan Agarwal 25 October 2007 8 July 2008
16 Balmiki Prasad Singh 9 July 2008 30 June 2013
17 Shriniwas Dadasaheb Patil 1 July 2013 26 August 2018
18 Ganga Prasad 26 August 2018 Incumbent

 

List of Chief Minister of Sikkim
Sl. No. Name Term Party
1 Kazi Lhendup Dorjee 16 May 1975 - 18 August 1979 Indian National Congress
2 Nar Bahadur Bhandari 18 October 1979- 11 May 1984 Sikkim Janata Parishad
3 B.B. Gurung 11 May 1984 - 25 May 1984 Indian National Congress
4 Nar Bahadur Bhandari 8 March 1985 - 17 June 1994 Sikkim Sangram Parishad
5 Sanchaman Limboo 17 June 1994 - 12 December 1994 Indian National Congress
6 Pawan Chamling 12 December 1994 - 27 May 2019 Sikkim Democratic Front
7 Prem Singh Tamang 27 May 2019 - Incumbent Sikkim Krantikari Morcha

 

List of Political Officers of Sikkim
Sl. No. Name
1 J Claude White
2 Sir Charles Bell
3 Major W.L. Campbell
4 Lt. Colonel W.F.O.'Conner
5 Major F.M. Bailey
6 Major J.L.R. Weir
7 Frederick Williamson
8 Sir Basil Gould
9 Anthony J Hopkinson

 

Administrative Blocks, 2015
Distribution of Sub-Divisions by district
Sl. No. District Number of Sub-Divisons Name of the Sub-Divisions
1 North District 4 Kabi, Dzongu, Mangan and Chungthang
2 West District 4 Gyalshing, Soreng, Yuksam and Dentam
3 South District 4 Namchi, Ravangla, Jorethang and Yangang
4 East District 4 Gangtok, Pakyong, Rongli and Rangpo

 

Distribution of rural blocks by district
Sl. No. District No. of BACs No. of GPUs No. of Panchayat Wards
1 North District 4 (including Dzumsa) 25 (including Dzumsa) 126
2 West District 10 61 348
3 South District 8 48 283
4 East District 10 51 283
5 Total 32 185 1040

 

Distribution of urban blocks by district
Sl. No. District Municipal Corporation / Nagar
Panchayat / Nagar Palika
No. of MW/NP
1 North District 1 5
2 West District 1 7
3 South District 2 14
4 East District 3 27
5 Total 7 53

 

FLORA AND FAUNA
State Animal : Red Panda     State Bird : Blood Pheasant
State Tree : Rhododendron Niveum     State Flower : Dendrobium Nobile (Nobile Orchid)
Fauna
Sl. No. Particulars of Fauna No. of species/sub-species found in the State Name of Principal Endangered Species
1 Mammals 144 Bharal, Clouded Leopard, Fishing Cat, Golden Cat, Himalayan Thar, Leopard Cat, Red Panda, Marbled Cat, Musk Deer, Nayan or Great Tibetan Sheep, Pangolin, Serow, Snow Leopard, Spotted Lingsang, Tibetan Antelope, Tibetan Fox, Tibetan Gazzelle, Tibetan Wild Ass, Tiger, Tibetan Wolf.
2 Birds 550 Black-Necked Crane(Migratory), Blood Pheasant, Peafowl, Tibetan Snow Cock, Tragopan Pheasant, Snow Partridge, Siberian Crane (Migratory).
3 Butterflies & Moths 650 N.A
4 Reptiles 33 N.A
5 Frogs 16 N.A
Flora
Sl. No. Particulars of Flora No.of Species found in the State
1 Orchids 550 (95 General)
2 Rhododendron 36 (45 Varieties)
3 Flowering Plants Over 4000 Species
4 Ferns & Allies 300
5 Conifers 9
6 Medicinal Plants and Herbs Plenty(Not enumerated)

 

Flora and Fauna found in temperate zone
Sl. No. Fauna Flora
1 Commom Langur Oak
2 Leopard Cats Cherry
3 Red Panda Alurel
4 Musk Deer Chestnut
5 Himalayan Black Bear Maple
6 Flying Squirrel Birch
7 * Snow Leopard * Rhododendron
8 * Wild Ass  

* Found in Alpine region

Most popular Orchids in Sikkim
Sl. No. Name Of Orchids
1 Cymbidiums
2 Vanda
3 Cattaleya
4 Hookeriana
5 Farmeri
6 Dendrobiun Amoenum
7 Nobile Orchid (Dendrobium Nobile)

 

Important Medicinal Plants found in Sikkim
Sl. No. PARTICULARS
1 NARDOSTACHYS GRANDIFLORA: Locally known as JATAMASI is about 40 cm in height and thrives above 12000 ft. It finds a wide spectrum of uses as a tonic, antispasmodic, diuretic, laxative. Its roots are used to prevent eplileptic fits. The roots are also used as incense, especially for religious offerings.
2 Aconites (Bikhma): Commonly known as Monkshood and Bikhma locally is found at altitudes between 7000 ft. and 13000 ft. Growing to a height of about 3 ft, they are very poisonous. Their roots are however effective against rheumatism and fever but care has to be taken to administer the correct dosage.
3 Artemisia Vulgaris (Titeypaty): Commonly known as Indian Wormwood and titeypati locally and grows up to altitude of 6000 ft. Attaining a height of about 4 ft, their leaves are used as an antiseptic.
4 Piper Longum (Pipla): Commonly known as long pepper and locally as Pipla grows on the foothills of Himalayas up to an altitude of 3000 ft. It is a creeping herb. It's fruits are used as a tonic and a medicine for disease like asthma. The roots are used as antidotes to snake bites.
5 Picrorhiza Kurrooa (Kutki): Known as Kutki locally grows at altitudes ranging between 10,000 ft. and 16000 ft. It grows to a height of about half feet and it's roots are used as a purgative and have also been found effective against Malaria.
   

 

IMPORTANT INDICATORS
Area: 7096 sq kms   |   State Capital : Gangtok   |  Number of district: 4  |  Sub division: 16   |  Literacy rate: 81.4%  |  Sex ratio: 890 per thousand males  |  Density: 86 person per sq.km  |  Per capita income at current prices: Rs 29,7765.00  |  Per capita income at constant prices: Rs 21,8333.00  |  Birth rate: 17.1  |  Death rate: 5.1  |  Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): 19  |  Neonatal Mortality: 19.4  |  Post Neonatal: 14.3  |  Child Mortality: 6.7  |  Under Five Mortality: 32  |  Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR): 8  |  Total Fertility Rate (TFR): 1.2